Alcohol Testing in the Workplace: an Employer’s Choice

There are many different types of alcohol testing. From the breathalyzer to intensive urine alcohol testing or hair alcohol testing,  there are many ways employers can get the information they are seeking. Here is a brief overview of several different types of alcohol testing.

Blood Alcohol Test

A blood alcohol test measures the amount of ethanol in the body. This type of test can be very useful in determining the amount of alcohol in the blood when someone is suspected of being intoxicated; it may be used to find the cause of an altered mental state. When a situation exists where alcohol is prohibited, this test may be used to determine whether or not the consumption of alcohol has taken place.

Urine Alcohol Test

Urine alcohol tests are simply not as accurate as other forms of alcohol testing. While a urine test can show the amount of alcohol in the body, it does not show the person’s present condition. Since it takes several hours for the alcohol to pass through the body, the test will not be an accurate indication of their present state. Further, this test can vary widely based on a person’s metabolism.  This type of testing is also not helpful in the case of an emergency, because it takes hours for a lab to test and deliver the results.

Hair Alcohol Test

Hair Alcohol Tests can get results that a regular blood alcohol test cannot. It is simple and accurate and requires only a small bit of hair. You might see a blood alcohol test being used on a person who is intoxicated, like a drunk driver that gets pulled over. While this may be effective in the moment, alcohol is quickly lost in the blood because it breaks down so quickly. In the hair, however, tiny traces of alcohol metabolite are trapped and save an alcohol history in its roots. Each half inch of head hair provides a 30-day history of alcohol use. This can allow employers to examine a person’s alcohol use over a period of months rather than days or even hours.

Whether employers continue to simply do a background check or progress to both drug testing and alcohol testing, one thing is certain: It has an effect on their bottom line.  While minor drug and alcohol use may not seem to impact employers, it starts to take a toll when their employees are missing work.  While a short-term effect may just be one missed day of work and a bad hangover, this may progress to a weakened immune system, meaning more missed work, more doctors visited and increased healthcare costs. Healthcare costs are already on the rise, and employers and already looking for ways in which to decrease them. Perhaps in the future they will look toward drug testing and alcohol testing as a solution or at least a step in becoming more drug and alcohol free.

Piss Drug Testing

Almost everybody in this world is habituated to some or the other kind of drug or stimulator. Among other drugs, Marijuana is a normal habit among the youths and an individual receives tremendous satisfaction and happiness when consumed. Now that one develops Marijuana addiction it is not easy to be ignored, for which blood tests have proven results but you just can’t force on anybody. MNC’s and huge companies have however made it a firm routine to perform a drug examination and are anxious to know if you are with some kind of drug fatuation or not. Well if you really have Marijuana addiction you can outdo the **** drug test as there is no ideal analysis to identify so. There may be certain medicines that may help you out with the test, but then the color of your urine sample breaks the secret. Here are certain methods by which you can successfully pass out your **** drug examination: 1. Avoid fat foods as well as non-vegetarian food, alcohol and even sea food as it raises your cholesterol level, you also require to give your kidney some rest as it is the main part to help part the waste products. 2. If you still consume Marijuana, you are sacked. Cease Marijuana as it will be obviously discovered in your urine samples if you are still with the routine. The THC preserved somewhere in your body fat should be burnt out by conducting rigorous workouts, you can even try some fat loss tablets to destroy fat, these are truly helpful to eject Marijuana traces though may not give you a slimmer look. 3. Diuretics aid you to successfully exceed the **** drug test, for example some drinks like tea, coffee, pomegranate juice and even fruits like grapes and berries that are high in antioxidants are the best way to wash out toxins from your body. This way you can exceed out the **** drug test as the Marijuana result is expelled out of your body along with the toxins. 4. As you get closer to the drug test date you require to munch on cooked food, boiled food is an excellent option. To help your digestive system you need to regularly consume a balanced diet rich in all the necessary nutrients. A good digestion helps a better functioning of your kidneys and therefore helps to wash out Marijuana toxins from your body. 5. Drinking lots of fresh fruit juices and adequate quantity of water will greatly help you and otherwise also this routine is too good, as it keeps you fit and energetic. This helps to detoxify your body from dangerous Marijuana deposits in your body. 6. Be cautious, do not consume a lot of coffee or extra doses of Vitamin-B supplements as these are precisely exposed in the color of your urine samples, as also if you completely pass out the **** drug test, it might create some doubt in the minds of the testers and so will the color of your urine samples announce your brief tough job. Last but not the least; if you really maintain a fit routine and stay away from Marijuana addiction, it is suggested that do follow this system always, as you live just once, so why not live fit and proud.

Ketone Tests-drug

How the Drug Works

Specially treated tablets (Acetest) or plastic test strips (Chemstrip K, Ketostix) detect the presence of ketones in the urine and blood (Acetest only). Ketones are substances that are formed when the body breaks down fats and carbohydrates for energy or food. When there are too many ketones in the body, they spill over into the urine. Ketones may be found in the urine of people who are fasting, on starvation diets, or in diabetics who have a very high blood sugar level because of lack of insulin. Ketones are not present in normal urine.

Uses

To detect ketones in urine.

To monitor for diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes that may lead to diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis occurs in uncontrolled diabetes.

Acetest only – To detect ketones in urine and in blood.

Liver and kidney function tests requiring the administration of phthalein compounds such as bromsulfophthalein, phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), or phenyl ketones (large quantities) may interfere with the ketone tests.

Specimen Collection and Preparations: Collect fresh urine in clean dry container and test as soon as possible. If testing cannot be done within an hour, refrigerate immediately. Let urine return to room temperature (59° to 86°F) before testing. Mix urine thoroughly before testing. Urine that is not tested right away or use of urine preservatives may affect test results. Storage and handling:

For Acetest tablets – These tablets are stable in the unopened container if stored at temperatures between 59° and 86°F. Protect from heat, moisture, and light. Once opened, stability is decreased with exposure to moisture, heat, and light. The bottle must be recapped promptly after removing a tablet. Tablets should be used on a regular basis and not stored for an extended period of time after the bottle is opened. Tan-to­brown discoloration or darkening of the tablet is an indication of deterioration.

For ChemStrip K-Avoid contact with skin and mucous membranes. Keep unused test strips in the original bottle with the cap tightly closed. ChemStrip Kwill remain stable in the original capped vial until the listed expiration date. To avoid moisture, replace the original stopper, which contains a drying agent, immediately after use. Store at room temperature (59° to 86°F). Protect from heat, moisure, and light. Do not freeze.

For Ketostix-Keep fingers or other objects from touching the reagent area before testing. Store at room temperatures between 59° and 86°F. Protect from heat, moisture, and light. Keep unused test strips in the original bottle with the cap tightly closed. Always replace the cap immediately and tightly. A new bottle can be used for 6 months. Always write the date you first opened the bottle on the bottle label. Do not use the strips after the expiration date has passed. Never transfer strips to another bottle. Do not remove the drying agent from bottle. It absorbs moisture and keeps the strips dry. Never put cotton or other materials in the bottle. If the reagent area becomes discolored or darkened, throw the strip away and use a strip from a new bottle. If using the individual foil-wrapped strips, do not remove strips until just prior to use.

Drug Interactions

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or if you are planning to take any over-the-counter or prescription medications or dietary supplements while testing for ketones. The following drugs and drug classes interact with the tests to cause questionable results.

8-hydroxyquinolone

Phthalein compounds (eg, brom sulfophthalein)

Levodopa (eg, Larodopa)

Mesna (eg, Mesnex) tions)

Nitrofurantoin (Furadantin)

Sulfhydryls

Phenazopyridine (eg, Pyridium)

Guidelines for Use

Follow the instructions on the label exactly.

Monitor urine for glucose and ketones as prescribed. Monitor urine ketones especially if your blood glucose level has been more than 250 mg/dL for 2 consecutive blood glucose determinations. Blood glucose monitoring is essential to achieve normal blood sugar levels. Keep track of your blood glucose results so that adjustments in your treatment program can be made more easily.

Ketones are not present in normal urine. Ketones in urine could be a sign of illness, stress, or poor diabetes control. Immediately report any positive test result to your doctor.

Have all of the materials you need before beginning the test: Tesfstrips or tablets, timer (stopwatch or watch with second hand), and a Clean dry container. For Acetest you will need a dropper and a clean, white piece of paper.

Color vision is needed to properly read test results. Have someone else confirm results if in doubt.

If test results seem questionable, confirm that product is within theexpiration date on the bottle. Repeat the test using a new test strip ortablet and fresh urine specimen.

Acetest-When a drop of urine is put onto a tablet, the drop should be absorbed within 30 seconds. If absorption takes more than 30 seconds, the tablets have been exposed to moisture and may not g.ive good results.

As with all laboratory tests, definitive diagnostic or therapeutic decisions should not be based on any single result or method.

Patients with diabetes should test for ketones:

When you have a cold, the flu, or any other kind of illness. When your urine sugar test results show you are spilling large amounts of sugar (at least 2% for at least 2 tests in a row or several days).

When you feel the signs of high blood sugar (more than 240mg/dL) or when your blood sugar is well over the range your doctor or educator has set for you.

When you are under unusual physical or emotional stress. Regularly during pregnancy.

Participate in a diabetes education program so that youl1nderstand diabetes and all aspects of its treatment, including diet, exercise, personal hygiene, and how to self-monitor blood glucose.

Diabetes education materials may be obtained through your local chapter of the American Diabetes Association.

Do not use opened or unopened product after expiration date.

Parents: Learn How Your Children can Cheat Drug Tests

Kids today are like a faulty balance scale. You tip the scale in one direction, and it falls flat on that side. Drugs and alcohol are in school and universities and it’s important to know what tests kids can fake and what ones they can’t. We will be focusing on urine alcohol testingand hair alcohol testing

Alcohol testing in urine is easy to fake using common sense. Most drugs show up in the urine for one week past its consumption. What a lot of kids can do is drink a lot of water so it flushes out of their system faster if they know that a drug test is coming. Others are able to sneak in “uncontaminated” urine so that they will pass.

One way that urine alcohol testing has been able to do to combat that this is measure the temperature of the urine. If the urine is slower than normal body temperature when it’s received, it’s obvious that the urine was brought in from the outside. We are also able to relatively tell the age of a person by their urine. If someone got the urine from an older man, a doctor will be able to tell that it is not your kids.

Hair alcohol testing is much harder for kids to cheat on. One obvious way to cheat this test is to cut off all of your hair. By then, you know something’s up. Alcohol in their hair can be stored for up to a year, so it’s a much more reliable test of ones drinking or drug habits. There are kits and shampoo that you can by that will supposedly cleanse your hair of any drugs or alcohol that would show up on a hair alcohol test. Short of bleaching your hair, these have proven to be ineffective.

As a parent it is your responsibility to monitor what your child is doing. Most of us know first hand that getting mixed up in drugs and alcohol can only lead down a bad path. Becoming addicted to one of these is the worst thing that can happen to anyone. Addiction will lead to a point where depression will kick in so hard that they will no longer feel like living gives a purpose. If their life becomes meaningless, then there will be no reason to keep it going. Do what you can to prevent this, but know that free choice is absolute.

While displaying the importance of not getting caught in the web of addiction, be sure not to be harsh or cruel to your children. If you child does get caught with an illegal substance, you can’t threaten them violently or they will do it more to spite you. They will lose respect for you when violence is brought into the picture, and when you lose respect from the one’s that are supposed to be showing you the way, responsibility becomes meaningless.

Will You Be Tested For Anabolic Steroids?

Why should there be anabolic steroid testing in sports? After all, a swimmer taking steroids cannot endanger national security, as he or she does not have access to defense secrets. A group of bodybuilders on anabolic steroids are not a danger to the public, unless someone steals their creatine or whey protein!

Let us begin with a technical discussion of how drug tests work and how accurate they are. We will then discuss the countermeasures used by athletes to try to beat anabolic steroid testing.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF DRUG TESTS

The International Olympic Commission (IOC) carries out the most precise and accurate of all drug- testing programs. The IOC began drug testing at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. At first only tests for amphetamines and other related performance enhancing drugs were carried out. Anabolic steroids, as a group were added to the list of banned substances in 1973. The first Olympics in which tests for anabolic steroids, was carried out was the Montreal Olympics in 1976.

DRUG TESTS

URINALYSIS

The most frequently used drug test for Anabolic steroid testing is urinalysis. The bodybuilder or other athlete is notified of the test after being awarded first, second or third place in a competition. Athletes who competed, but did not place in the top three, may also be chosen at random to be tested. The person must present himself/herself to the testing site immediately after the awards ceremony. The athlete is asked to urinate in the presence of an official to prevent sample tampering. The urine sample is divided into two samples: sample one is stored under close security, only to be used pending the outcome of tests on sample two. Sample two, the test sample, is then subjected to various forms of chemical analysis. One of the most commonly used tests is the gas chromatography procedure.

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

In this test a chromatograph converts the urine into gas, screening out traces of forbidden compounds. Under pressure the gas passes through very sensitive columns, which separate the various substances into easily detectable components. If metabolites (breakdown products) of anabolic steroids are detected, the next step is to use a device called a mass spectrometer to determine exactly which steroids are in the athlete’s sample.

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

Instead of using the gas chromatography method, a variation known as liquid chromatography may be used for anabolic steroid testing. Once again, specialized columns of chemicals are used. The liquid urine is exposed to these columns, and the various constituents of the urine climb the columns to different levels. Drug components can be separated by color and distance

RADIOIMMUNOASSAY (RIA)

This test was developed in the early seventies, and was considered at the time to be the end-all to drug use in sports. Because RIA involves the use of radioactive isotopes, the number of laboratories which can carry out this test are limited. For this procedure, radioactive isotopes and specific foreign substance antibodies are added to a urine sample. If no banned steroids are present, the antibodies and isotopes combine and can be filtered out of the solution. There would be no remaining radioactivity in the sample. In a positive sample, the antibodies do not combine with the isotopes, and radioactivity remains. The chromatography and mass spectrometer tests are considered the top of the line in anabolic steroid testing, and have replaced RIA tests.

TESTOSTERONE RATIO TESTING

In the past, male athletes who knew that competitors at a particular event were to be tested for steroids, would simply discontinue the use of the steroids well in advance of the competition. When they stopped anabolic steroid use, they substituted pure testosterone. The purpose was to maintain strength, size, and other performance gains.

Scientists and drug testers became aware of this countermeasure and in response they developed a counter-countermeasure. As testosterone is broken down, one of its breakdown products, epitestosterone, is produced. The normal ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone is 1:1. When an athlete takes artificial testosterone, the amount of testosterone in the urine is increased, but the amount of epitestosterone excreted does not change. Thus the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone increases dramatically. If the athlete’s ratio exceeds 6:1, the athlete is disqualified. For example, one powerlifter was tested and his ratio was 100:1!

Not only is the ratio indicative of testosterone use by an athlete, it also reveals to the tester whether or not the individual was using high levels of anabolic steroids. When an athlete uses anabolic steroids, the body’s own testosterone levels are reduced dramatically. When the user stops taking steroids, the body’s own testosterone production resumes, to bring testosterone levels back to the pre-steroid state. In some cases, the athlete’s body over-produces testosterone, thus shifting the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio upwards, past the acceptable upper limit of 6:1.

TESTING ACCURACY

From 1986 to 1988, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson was tested 19 times for anabolic steroids at various competitions. Although he was using anabolic steroids throughout this period, all tests were negative. Even in 1988, Olympic athletes using steroids managed to pass sophisticated IOC anabolic steroid tests. More than 50 male athletes who competed in the Seoul Olympics were later found to have used anabolic steroids in the six months prior to the games. These results came to light after a more sophisticated testing procedure was carried out on 1100 urine samples (collected during the games), which had been stored.

The present detection capabilities for some steroids are in the .25 mg (nanogram) range. This means that the specific metabolites for a drug such as Deca-durabolin can be measured, even when they exist in a concentration of one quarter part per billion! In most cases the tests can detect steroid use for only as long as the steroid is exerting a physiological effect on the athlete’s system.

There are numerous factors that increase or decrease a bodybuilder’s chances of passing or failing an anabolic steroid test. These include:

The type of anabolic steroids used How long the individual was on the drugs The dosages used The purity of the steroids The type of steroid cycle followed The individual’s genetics

It’s because of these factors that bodybuilders and other athletes have developed a whole series of anabolic steroid test counter measures to be drug tests.

Bodybuilding Drug Tests

Many bodybuilding federations claim to be natural. However, the winners of the classes in these events tend to display levels of muscularity and conditioning not attainable without chemical assistance. While the debate over the ethics of a steroid user entering a natural competition merits its own article, we can agree that there are a wide variety of products and techniques available to ensure that an athlete using drugs is not caught when the drug test is given. Let’s learn more.

To Pass The Test

Typically you will be given a blood or urine screen for bodybuilding drugs. If you don’t know what type of test you’ll be facing, you’ll need to be prepared for all of them – blood, hair, and urine. You will wish to remove the substances from your body, which can cause you to fail the test. Drink water. Utilize over-the-counter herbal cleansers. Keep your hair trimmed short, or bald. Use compounds with a very short life, such as Andriol (7 days), Clenbuterol (4 days), testosterone suspension (3 days) in the last days before a show. You’ll want to stop the use of injectables several weeks before the show, and even then, some will show up for up to a year. The more potent the steroid, the longer it will show up on a toxicology screening.

Polygraphs

Obviously, it’s very tough to beat a polygraph, or lie detector examination. The controller will examine your heartbeat, body temperature, and other factors while asking you a series of control questions. He will then ask you if you have used steroids during the forbidden time period. If your body signals elevate, you will be determined to be lying, and you will lose your winnings. Some people are able to cheat the polygraph by actually convincing themselves of an alternate reality where they didn’t cheat, or they can accept that fact that ‘everybody does it!” so they justify their use as acceptable. Still others have found that taking a mild sedative can cause the body to appear calm and relaxed during all questioning by removing all potential spikes in temperature or agitation levels.

Know The Odds

Testing athletes is very expensive, and we all know that most bodybuilding contests don’t turn major profits. For this reason, many promoters simply don’t test their athletes. Or, they will only test the winners of the classes. If you fail your test, your check doesn’t arrive, and the runner-up gets your title and winnings.

Drug testing for the various institutions

The testing of drugs at the work place or in sports teams has become one of the most common phenomenons. Not only that drug testing has got its popularity in probation offices, police departments, schools and many other such institutions. This is a method of detection to discover people having drug problems. This is quite helpful in preventing a lot of deaths in today’s world because of the growing addiction for drugs. This also helps the employers to determine what type of people they are employing and to ensure full efficiency of their employees. This is also an effective tool for the parents who suspect that their children are getting victim of drug addiction. This sometimes becomes really needful, as there is no time limit or age group of getting addicted to drugs. Therefore the invention of drug testing really proves to be a boon for a lot f people and for that reason they are able to help their near and dear ones.

For a company or a sports team the drug testing becomes much essential to ensure the physical health of their players or the employees. In most cases it is seen that the applicants are required to go through a drug test in order to join the team or get a job. This is legal procedure and is been legally accepted by most of the countries. As this is true that a person is always having the choice whether to go under a drug test or not, but in that case the unwilling person will not be hired by that company or will not be allowed to join the team. Thus it is seen that drug testing has been put under the eligibility criteria by most of the companies or sports team before employment or joining the team. And an applicant must fulfill this criterion before getting employment or being accepted as a team member. This criterion has been accepted worldwide. And it is also seen that this is not only helpful for the employer but also for the employee.

But along with that it is also often seen that periodical drug tests are being conducted at work places and also in sports teams. This is done to ensure incase the candidates gets to addiction after joining. This proves the concern of the employers and the sports teams about drug addiction. As for example in case of sports teams while going on a tournament, drug test is been conducted for each team members by the organizers. Therefore in case any single member of any team is found positive, the team is really going to face serious problems. Therefore a strict eye is kept before hand by the teams themselves. Similarly the companies also are quite concerned about this matter and it is obvious that they would always try to get the best out of their employees for their own profit.

As we all know that drugs have negative physical and emotional effects on human behavior. Therefore having an employee or player under the influence of drugs is a dangerous situation. Thus they have plenty of solid reasons to conduct a drug test in order to certify their employees and athletes of their ability of best performance.

Conducting a Home Drug Test

Many people are concerned about drug use today. There are different reasons for this concern. Some people work for companies that conduct random drug and alcohol tests for safety reasons according to company policy. Parents may be concerned about the influence of drugs and alcohol on their children. Family members might need to monitor a loved one to help them maintain a drug and alcohol free lifestyle.

A home drug test is a safe and reassuring method to accomplish any of these goals. It should be noted that while a number of drugs can be detected by these tests, there is only one way to insure results that will satisfy the requirements that most employers have in their company policies. A CLIA certified laboratory has the equipment that can conduct these types of tests under the strict guidelines mandated by law.

However, if a person is interested in testing themselves or a loved one as a preliminary check before a random drug test or as a way to monitor someone’s activities, then a home drug test will be of great value. Although the results will not necessarily pass the stringent standards set by law, they will indicate the presence of a variety of substances that may be of concern.

The methods of testing at home that are considered to provide instant results are the saliva test and the urinalysis tests. These two tests provide results within a few minutes and can be conducted in the privacy of the home. The hair follicle test, which is the most extensive in its procedure, requires a sample to be sent to a CLIA certified laboratory.

The home drug test using saliva as the test specimen, simply requires a saliva sample to be placed on a collection spoon that will indicate the level of drugs present in the body. This method will produce results in five minutes and will indicate the presence of four different drugs used in the past 24 hours.

The urine home drug test comes in two types of kits. One kit provides a sample collection container and a separate test cassette which is placed directly into a cup containing the urine. The other type of urine test provides a self-contained cup that integrates the test into it – No dipping, no mess. This type also has a temperature sensor that indicates whether or not the sample is actually at body temperature.

The urinalysis kits also produce results within five minutes, and both can test for the presence of up to ten different drugs that have been used in the last 72 to 84 hours. Both the saliva home drug test and the urinalysis tests are non-intrusive.

The hair follicle test, because of the extensive testing done, requires a sample to be sent to a laboratory. This home drug test will indicate the presence of many different drugs and can detect their use going back to three months in the past. The results can only be accessed by the person sending in the sample, so it is a safe and secure method of testing.

Drug Test – Follows Screening and Confirmatory Test

Determining if a person is under the influence of any drug is considered very important by the Employers, Law Enforcement Officers, Sports Officials and School Authorities just to make the surroundings healthy and to help people lead a healthy life. Monitoring behavioral changes in an individual may or may not confirm the use of drugs. It may be other factors too. So Drug testing helps to determine if such abnormal behavior is due to intake of drugs or not.

Visible symptoms like a general lack of interest, a fall in grades and abandonment from family members if notice in youngsters then it can be concluded that they are victims of drug abuse. Mood swings to a feeling of low self-esteem also says that the person is using drugs. Change in style of dressing or taste in music and repeated absenteeism from school and are also some of the visible symptoms of drug abuse. Behavioral changes that are found among the employees using drugs at a work place are clearly visible through a decrease in their productivity.

Drug testing procedure follows two-step process. For instance say a urine sample is taken from the individual and it is divided in two parts. One part of the sample collected is tested for screening using immunoassay, which is a relatively simple, inexpensive, yet highly accurate test. The second step depends on the first step. If the first test is negative, then the result is declared to be negative, and if the result of the first test turns out to be positive, then the second test of confirmation follows. This test is conducted using the other part of the sample using a more complicated and more costly technique known as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or thin-layer chromatography (TLC). And if this test too displays a positive result then the person undergoing the test is declared to be under the influence of drugs. And on the other hand if this test shows negative, the previous test is deemed incorrect.

The process of giving a drug test should be done with care. Ensure that sample is sample is safe from alteration. Clean containers must be used to collect the sample. The sample must be checked immediately for acidity and temperature. Besides these care should be taken that the containers should be labeled in the presence of witness and furthermore, the containers should be sealed properly to prevent alteration. Watch out that the test should not be performed by a layperson and look out that the samples should be tested by licensed labs. All these factors are very important because the finally the results depends on all these factors. So take care of these factors to get the accurate results.